What is Syntax? Definition, Meaning & Examples For Writers

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Definition: Syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, including the order in which words and phrases are arranged to convey a certain meaning. The term “syntax” comes from the Greek word “syntaxis,” which means “arrangement” or “setting out together.”

But syntax isn’t just about the sequence of words; it also includes punctuation and stylistic choices, which can significantly affect the meaning and clarity of a sentence or a character in a script, screenplay, or book.

Breaking down English Syntax

The cat sat on the mat syntax example

Syntax is one of the core components of grammar and is concerned with how words combine to form clauses, phrases, and complete sentences.

For example, the sentence “The cat sat on the mat” follows standard English syntax: subject (“The cat”) followed by verb (“sat”) and then the prepositional phrase (“on the mat”).

A deviation from this could result in a sentence like “On the mat sat the cat,” which is syntactically correct but less common in English.

Another common example involves direct and indirect objects.

For example, “She gave him the book.” follows standard English syntax: subject (She) followed by a verb (gave), and then the indirect object (“him” (to whom the book was given)), and “the book” is the direct object (what was given).

Syntax Examples from Movies

Here are three quotes from movie scriptwriters known for their unique syntactical play and an analysis of the syntax and its significance for the characters.

Each quote is crafted to highlight essential aspects of their personality or role within the story.

1. Yoda from “Star Wars” – “The Empire Strikes Back” (1980)

Written by Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan.

Do or do not. There is no try.

– Yoda

Analysis:

Yoda’s word order is often inverted or rearranged, which reflects his ancient wisdom and alien nature.

This quote emphasizes the binary nature of commitment for a Jedi—either fully commit (do) or don’t engage at all (do not).

His syntax’s absence of a middle ground (try) directly reflects the decisiveness and certainty he teaches Luke Skywalker.

Significance:

Yoda’s distinctive syntax underlines his otherworldly wisdom and sets him apart as a venerable Jedi Master.

His speech pattern is not only memorable but also serves to convey the depth and absoluteness of the Jedi philosophy.

See more wise quotes from Yoda.

2. Groot from “Guardians of the Galaxy” (2014)

Written by James Gunn and Nicole Perlman for the MCU.

I am Groot.

– Groot

Analysis:

Groot’s syntax is extremely simple and repetitive, consisting solely of the phrase “I am Groot” with variations in intonation.

Despite the simplicity, the character conveys many emotions and meanings, which other characters (especially Rocket) understand through context and inflection.

Significance:

Groot’s syntax is significant because it reflects his limited verbal communication ability, contrasting his profound emotional capacity and heroic nature.

His simple phrase symbolizes his identity and emphasizes that actions often speak louder than words.

See more about symbols in film.

3. The Terminator from “The Terminator” (1984)

Written by James Cameron and Gale Anne Hurd.

The Terminator looking for Sarah Connor.

I’ll be back.

– T-800

Analysis:

The Terminator’s syntax is typically straightforward and devoid of unnecessary components, which mirrors his nature as a machine with a clear mission.

The future tense “I’ll be back” instead of a more immediate “I’m coming back” or “I will return” gives an ominous certainty and an implied threat, which adds to the menacing presence of the character.

Significance:

The Terminator’s syntax, exemplified by the iconic line, reinforces his role as an unstoppable force.

His dialogue is delivered with mechanical precision, reflecting his programming and unyielding pursuit of his objectives.

Simple future tense makes the character memorable and instills a dread about his return.

4. Travis Bickle from Taxi Driver (1976)

Written by Paul Schrader

You talking to me? Well, I’m the only one here. Who the fuck do you think you’re talking to?

– Travis Bickle

Analysis:

This quote is characterized by its use of direct address and rhetorical questions.

The repetition of the question “You talking to me?” increases the scene’s intensity, and the informal, confrontational language reflects Travis Bickle’s isolation and growing paranoia.

The fragmented nature of the sentences and the use of profanity create a sense of aggression and instability.

Significance:

Travis Bickle is a character who feels alienated and disconnected from the society around him.

The syntax of this quote captures his descent into madness and his aggressive, defensive attitude.

It is a pivotal moment that illustrates his detachment from reality and foreshadows his violent outburst later in the film.

Syntax Examples from Classic Literature that have later been made into Films

Hamlet syntax analysis to be or not to be

1. Pride and Prejudice (1813) – Jane Austen

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.

– Jane Austen

Analysis:

Jane Austen begins the sentence with an inverted clause, “It is a truth universally acknowledged,” which is more formal and places emphasis on the statement being a widely accepted fact.

The second part of the sentence, “that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife,” follows the first with a subordinate clause that expounds on the universally acknowledged truth.

The comma introduces a pause, adding a dramatic effect that underscores the statement’s irony. Austen’s syntax here sets the tone for the novel, presenting a satirical view of marriage and the social dynamics of her time.

Significance:

This opening line sets the stage for the character of Mrs. Bennet, whose primary goal is to see her daughters married to wealthy men. The syntax reflects the societal pressures and expectations deeply internalized by characters like Mrs. Bennet.

2. Hamlet (1603) – William Shakespeare

To be, or not to be: that is the question

– Hamlet

Analysis:

Shakespeare’s use of the infinitive verb “to be” establishes the existential dilemma faced by Hamlet.

The colon after “to be, or not to be” suggests a pause for consideration, framing the phrase “that is the question” as a profound philosophical inquiry.

The syntax’s simplicity and brevity mirror Hamlet’s question’s depth and complexity.

Significance:

This line symbolizes Hamlet’s character, who constantly questions and reflects on life, death, and existence.

The syntax underscores his indecision and philosophical nature, capturing the essence of his tragic internal struggle.

If you like this article, you might enjoy Hyperbole: Definition and Examples from Film and Literature.

Why Syntax Matters to (Script) Writers

For screenwriters, syntax is an important tool for crafting dialogue and narrative that reflects character personalities, cultural backgrounds, and the story’s pacing.

In the context of screenwriting, syntax isn’t just about grammatical correctness; it’s also about the style and rhythm of the language used.

Screenwriters manipulate syntax to give characters distinct voices, to create tension or urgency in a scene, or to convey subtext

For instance, a character who speaks in short, fragmented sentences might come across as tense or nervous (or robotic, as is the case of Terminator), while another who uses long, elaborate sentences might seem more educated or reflective.

You might like How to Create Compelling Character Bios.

Good syntax in screenwriting involves:

  • Clarity: Ensuring that the dialogue and action descriptions are clear and understandable to the reader, which in turn helps actors understand how to deliver their lines and directors understand how to visualize the scenes.
  • Conciseness: Keeping language tight and economical, especially in action lines, to maintain the script’s pace and avoid unnecessary jargon.
  • Characterization: Using syntax to reflect a character’s background, education level, and personality. For example, a well-educated character might use complex sentence structures, while a street-smart character might use slang and incomplete sentences.
  • Rhythm: Varying sentence length and structure to create a natural flow that matches the emotional beats of the scene. Intense, fast-paced scenes might have shorter, choppier sentences, while more reflective scenes could have longer, more flowing ones.
  • Subtext: Employing syntax to hint at underlying meanings or emotions without stating them outright. How a character says something can be as important as what they say.
  • Pacing: How sentences are constructed affects the script’s pacing. Short, choppy sentences can quicken the pace, while longer, more complex sentences can slow it down. Screenwriters use syntax to control the rhythm and flow of the narrative.
  • Tone and Atmosphere: The choice of words and sentence structure can also set the tone and atmosphere of a scene.
    For example, using descriptive language and longer sentences can create a more immersive and detailed setting, while sparse, blunt syntax can heighten tension.
  • Economy of Language: Screenwriting is an art form that values brevity and economy of language. Effective syntax allows screenwriters to convey ideas succinctly, fitting complex thoughts or actions into the limited space of a script page without losing meaning.
  • Readability: A well-structured script with proper syntax is easier and more engaging. Since scripts are the blueprints for films or TV shows, they are read by many people throughout the production process. A script that is easy to read is more likely to keep the reader’s attention and convey the writer’s vision effectively.
  • Emotional Impact: The way sentences are constructed can also influence the emotional impact of a scene. Syntax can be manipulated to create tension, surprise, or emotional resonance, affecting how the audience will ultimately feel about the story.

For screenwriters, mastering syntax is essential for writing compelling, character-driven stories that engage readers and audiences.

Part of the craft helps bring the script off the page and into the imagination, painting a picture of how the dialogue and action will play out on screen.

Author

  • Jan Sørup

    Jan Sørup is a indie filmmaker, videographer and photographer from Denmark. He owns filmdaft.com and the Danish company Apertura, which produces video content for big companies in Denmark and Scandinavia. Jan has a background in music, has drawn webcomics, and is a former lecturer at the University of Copenhagen.

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By Jan Sørup

Jan Sørup is a indie filmmaker, videographer and photographer from Denmark. He owns filmdaft.com and the Danish company Apertura, which produces video content for big companies in Denmark and Scandinavia. Jan has a background in music, has drawn webcomics, and is a former lecturer at the University of Copenhagen.

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